This study was conducted by Deborah Denno and is one of the largest longitudinal studies of biological and sociological predictors of crime in America. One of the many goals of this biological study was determining whether there were gender differences among the numerous possible correlates of crime that the study examined.
1. Males commit more violent crime, and more offenses, during both the juvenile and the adult years.
2. The greater number of offenses for males is a reflection of both their greater participation in crime, and their more frequent offense commission once they do participate.
3. The biological, psychological, and sociological factors predicting crime among males and females are similar and they interrelate.
4. Biological factors (e.g. abnormal movements, neurological abnormalities) are relatively stronger predictors of crime among females, given the greater social and familiar constraints on female behavior.
5. Environmental factors (i.e. lead intoxication, low language achievement, disciplinary problems) are relatively stronger predictors of crime among males, in light of research suggesting that males are somewhat more vulnerable to environmental stressors throughout their lives.