The Northern East Kimberley region of Western Australia is facing a development crossroads with the need to make a decision on either the extension or closure of Argyle Diamond Mine. This region also has a major economic development problem in that half of its adult population is almost entirely Aboriginal, is highly dependent on welfare and is mostly outside the mainstream labour market. Whatever decisions are made about future development in the area, it is essential that they bring about improvements in Aboriginal participation. This study profiles social and economic conditions in the region, focusing on the Aboriginal population. It examines demography, the labour market, income, education and training, housing and infrastructure, health status, and regional involvement in the criminal justice system.