Australia's population in 2051 is projected to be approximately 26.4 million. This report considers where the increased population will reside. Living in some areas of Australia is impossible, so population dispersal must capitalise on where people want to settle and there are economic opportunities. Research into population settlement patterns and motivations is sparse, but population settlement must take into account divergent characteristics and needs of regions, and gain agreement from all tiers of government and private, public and community interests. Socioeconomic 20-30 year strategic plans could optimise population outcomes for all States. The three primary population settlement options which can be capitalised on to broaden settlement distribution are maintaining existing programs to attract skilled migrants to regional Australia and expanding them to other immigrants, targeting integrated migrants, and also the local population. The findings and recommendations are based on detailed case studies of Shepparton, Victoria, Hobart, Tasmania, and provincial Canada.