This report is the result of a collective effort by experts from 27 Countries requested by the Council of the European Union to identify ‘innovative approaches to the multilevel governance of tangible, intangible and digital heritage which involve the public sector, private stakeholders and the civil society’, in the framework of the Work Plan for Culture 2015-2018. Working on this mission was a challenging task. It extended far beyond simply compiling and presenting what was already known through research and professional or institutional experience. The working group drew up questionnaires and templates, and collected and analysed relevant data and examples. The text has been compiled step by step, and discussed at meetings and in smaller groups between the meetings. This was a rewarding process, enabling us to learn together and reach a mutual understanding. However, it resulted in a text with a use of the English language that is understandable but not idiomatic. Non-native English speakers may even find it easier to read than native speakers.