The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to six-year-old children with behavioural difﬁculties. It was implemented for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in urban Darwin and for Aboriginal children in three communities of the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin. Measured outcomes of the programme were positive overall with different outcomes by gender and Indigenous status.
There were marked differences in retention of families from different socio-cultural backgrounds in the programme, with a signiﬁcant loss of participants from referral through commencement to six-month follow-up. This drop-out was most marked for urban Aboriginal participants, despite highly ﬂexible strategies of engagement and cultural adaptation of the approach pursued in each setting.