Australians are working longer hours than at any time during the past 20 years. A consequence of this has been that the proportion who are overworked-defined here as those working 49 or more hours per week-is greater than ever before. Paradoxically, this trend has also been accompanied by a rising proportion of workers who are underworked-that is, working less hours than they would prefer. This Research Note looks at these apparently contradictory trends, how they came about and who is affected. It does not, however, enter into the contentious debate about work sharing, i.e. the suggestion that excess hours can be reallocated towards more jobs.