Many Aboriginal communities have welcomed the Australian Government’s ban on the import of kava, as part of the Northern Territory "emergency intervention". Kava is a ceremonial drink from the Pacific Islands that was introduced into North East Arnhem Land in the 1980s as an alternative to alcohol. Helen Hughes asks what comes next? Clearly banning kava won't solve the deeper social, education and health problems endemic in remote indigenous communities. Will these problems merely be wallpapered over with alcoholism or to the rise of cannabis and other drugs?