This paper considers 'proliferation': that is, the degree to which links between civilian and military applications of nuclear materials, and technology, may contribute to an increase in risk from nuclear weapons. Key questions are: can nuclear material supplied for peaceful purposes be used to fashion nuclear weapons? Does increasing the supply of uranium for avowedly civilian purposes lead, necessarily, to an increase in levels of risk from nuclear weapons? If Australia raises its level of uranium export, will that lead to higher levels of risk from nuclear weapons overall? Given the entry of North Korea to the nuclear weapons 'club' in recent months, and the discomfort and alarm this has occasioned, it is clear that these are important questions within the larger debate on nuclear policy.