Rickets may have been thought to be a 'thing of the past'. In fact at the beginning of the 20th century, it has been estimated that 85% of children living in northern hemisphere urban industrialised cities had rickets. Major public health initiatives were then introduced to tackle this problem.
In 'sunny Australia' rickets has not been considered a significant health problem until the last decade or so, when a rising incidence of Vitamin D deficiency rickets occurring in southern states in particular, has been observed, however as yet there has been no systematic approach to prevention.
This article outlines both the pathophysiology and clinical features of rickets, highlighting recognition of infants and children at risk.