NCCARF’s evidence-based Policy Information Briefs address key challenges to effective adaptation to Australia’s variable and changing climate. They provide high-level policy advice designed for use by policy-makers at Commonwealth and State level. This Brief addresses the challenges rural communities face in adapting to a variable and changing climate. It was developed through a consultation workshop in Dubbo together with extensive exchange with relevant stakeholders and experts. After establishing the climate context and describing rural communities' current and future stresses and impacts associated with climate change, this Brief outlines a number of adaptation actions that could be undertaken. In terms of policy, consistent, continuous, holistic, cross-agency and multidisciplinary policy is needed to address competing demands on water, land, and other natural resources while also maintaining or improving the liveability of rural communities.