By better understanding the concerns and identifying the risk and protective factors for child abuse and neglect that impact during pregnancy, early intervention and prevention pathways can be developed to improve outcomes for children and reduce family involvement with the child protection system. This policy brief summarises the preliminary findings from a case file review study utilising a sample of Unborn Child Concerns in South Australia made in 2014. This project is a component of the work conducted by the External Expert Consortium for the South Australian Early Intervention Research Directorate (EIRD). The study aimed to provide a better understanding of the concerns being raised to the Department of Child Protection about unborn children, to examine patterns of risk factors, to identify subsequent child protection involvement for these children, and to study patterns in the data to identify families who may benefit from early intervention and prevention efforts. Together with other projects being undertaken for the EIRD, the case file reviews will enable the development of timely, effective and targeted options for prevention and early intervention efforts. This policy brief outlines the aims, methods, initial findings and implications of the first case file review study.