This review aims to establish the nature and efficacy of Australian school-based prevention and early intervention programs for anxiety and depression. Twenty-four efficacy or effectiveness trials of nine intervention programs were identified. Most were based on cognitive behaviour therapy, interpersonal therapy or psychoeducation. Six were universal interventions, two were indicated programs and one was a treatment program. Most were associated with short-term improvements or symptom reduction at follow-up.
Conclusion: A number of schools' programs produced positive outcomes. However, even well established programs require further evaluation to establish readiness for broad dissemination as outlined in the standards of the Society for Prevention Research.