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The original Quadrilateral Security Initiative was a proposed maritime alliance that included the United States, Japan and Australia, with India as a reluctant partner. It has been rebadged as “Quad 2.0” because India is now more active in the nascent alliance, including in the western Pacific, and much more embedded in US and Australian maritime strategic thinking on the Indo-Pacific.

The proposed Quadrilateral Security Initiative 2.0 is an informal maritime alliance of the United States, India, Japan and Australia which primarily involves co-operation in the Indo-Pacific. In contrast, the original Quad arrangement of a decade ago was centred on the Asia-Pacific.

Key points:

  • The proposed second iteration of the Quadrilateral Security Initiative – “Quad 2.0” – is an informal, security-focussed maritime alliance of the United States, India, Japan and Australia.
  • It aims to balance Beijing’s maritime aggression.
  • The shift of focus from the Asia-Pacific to the Indo-Pacific is an acknowledgement of India’s growing influence in the region and beyond.
  • Vietnam, Indonesia and France may choose to join the grouping in the future.
  • The Quad 2.0 could require India to adopt the logistical and communications standards that are common to the other three participants. It could require New Delhi to sign additional agreements with Washington to standardise that aspect of the alliance.
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