This is the report of two-year longitudinal study, The Role of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Regional Australia, conducted by research staff of the Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia. The overall aim of the project is to provide detailed information about what is occurring in the field of vocational education, training and learning in Australia's regions. The project seeks to throw light not only on the various ways in which VET contributes to the economic and social wellbeing of the regions, but how and why it achieves this. As a result, it shows ways in which VET's impact on economic and social outcomes can be enhanced. Volume 1 of the report describes the research and its methodology, including a review of the literature; it also provides an overview of the ten sites studied, and presents conclusions and implications. Volume 2 details the ten regional case studies, which involved: Broken Hill - Partnerships with the community: a response to the needs of a city in decline; Cairns - VET in an environment of growth and cultural diversity; Gayndah - VET and the impact of competition in rural communities; Katanning - The effect of community ownership on VET in small rural communities; Katherine - VET as a tool for bridging social and cultural divides; Kerang - VET's role in building a learning culture in rural and remote communities; Launceston - The contribution of effective VET partnerships in regional communities; Orbost - VET's potential for building social cohesion in divided communities; Penrith - VET's contribution to growth in a peri-urban fringe; and Port Lincoln - Local leadership as a driver for VET in rural communities.