The social and economic changes associated with large scale mineral resource extraction are key issues for rural society in Australia and internationally. Resource extraction has played an important role in Australia since European settlement and continues to do so. However, there are some indications that Australia's current resources 'boom' may be qualitatively different from past experiences. For example, perspectives on extraction of energy resources are now framed by debates over energy futures, in the context of climate change. Coal seam gas wells are bringing resource extraction closer to centres of rural population and agricultural production.