This article explores population movements in the Gippsland region, Victoria. The main issue addressed is the extent to which population movement within and without the region has been shaped by economic developments and what that implies for the well being of Gippsland residents. An analysis of census data between 1991 and 1996 demonstrates that there is an accumulation of disadvantaged people in Gippsland which derives from the economic difficulties the residents have had to cope with. A tendency for younger and better qualified people to leave the region has exacerbated the problem to a certain extent. There has also been a small reverse flow into Gippsland, mainly of low income older people. The results indicate that some areas, particularly towns in the Latrobe Valley, need urgent and intensive assistance.