The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contribution that expenditure by Aboriginal people, and related institutions and activities, makes to the Central Australian/Alice Springs economy. Expenditures estimated include: those by Aboriginal people in Alice Springs; expenditure in Alice Springs by institutions which deal exclusively or extensively with Aboriginal people; and the expenditures which persons and organisations located in adjacent Aboriginal communities and outstations make within Alice Springs. In addition, the contribution to tourism expenditure of Aboriginal people and culture will be estimated. Sources of data for this study include the ABS 2006 Census, survey results from institutions in Alice Springs and from community organisations that purchase supplies from Alice Springs, and a survey of tourists. Our conclusions are that the Aboriginal proportion of the Alice Springs and Central Australian economy is both core to that economy and has grown slightly in relative measure over the past two decades.