Convened in part to mark the tenth anniversary of the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, the 'Indigenous Welfare Economy and the CDEP scheme: Autonomy, Dependence, Self Determination and Mutural Obligation conference' was held in Canberra, November 2000. This research monograph is one of the outcomes. The crucial issue addressed is how Indigenous self determination and the rights agenda, which argues for the unique and inherent rights of indigenous Australians, will sit with the proposed mutual obligation of welfare reform. Papers presented are arranged in four sections: Part 1. Overviews - focusing on social justice, social security and community development issues; Part 2. on policy perspectives; Part 3. Regional studies - case studies of CDEP programs in remote Australia, such as the Torres Strait, Port Augusta and Central Australia. Part 4. Community perspectives - highlights a range of issues such as self determination, job creation and mutual obligation, mobility and diversity, training and employment, in rural and urban areas. The following papers have been individually indexed: Welfare and social justice for indigenous Australians by Brian Butler; CDEP, racial discrimination, and social justice by William Jonas; The changing social security policy context: implications for the CDEP program by Peter Saunders; Community development in the context of welfare dependence by David Martin; Adjusting balances: Reshaping the CDEP scheme after 20 good years by Will Sanders; Welfare dependence, mutual obligation, and the CDEP scheme: lessons from community research and an overseas initiative by Diane Smith; Demographic challenges to the future of CDEP by John Taylor and Boyd Hunter; 'Mutual obligation', the CDEP scheme, and development: Prospects in remote Australia by Jon Altman; CDEP as conduit to the real' economy? The Port Augusta case by Matthew Gray and Elaine Thacker.