Public transport and active transport create community benefits which justify supporting them with public subsidies, according to this report which makes a series of recommendations for encouraging a shift away from private cars.
Significant increases in urban public transport use in recent years have caused complaints about overcrowding and focussed attention on the need for improvement. Problems of urban traffic congestion have had renewed attention since the publication of a 2007 report which projects a greatly increased congestion cost in future under business as usual assumptions. Rising oil prices and changing climate have also increased the demand upon and the need for public transport. The detrimental health effects of inactive, car-dependent lifestyles have had increased attention in recent years as part of the discussion of the 'obesity epidemic'.