Buildings are responsible for a large share of the global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions generation. Most emissions are produced during the operation of the buildings. The chapter presents tools to monitor and assess the performance of residential buildings from design to operation in relation to energy, water and use of materials without compromising and in fact enhancing their liveability. A focus is on the Australian setting with some international examples provided for comparison. Mandatory housing energy assessment tools and their regulatory context are outlined, followed by two emerging ‘beyond compliance’ tools that address life-cycle analysis as well as broader sustainability outcomes. The Josh’s House case study in Perth, Western Australia, is explored in some detail in order to highlight lessons learned from a best practice example.