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Working paper

Electric vehicles are based on two overarching concepts: Electric vehicles that rely on energy stored in batteries and Electric vehicles that provide the energy on board by a fuel cell or any other alternative. Both concepts are predicted to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Further take up of Electric vehicles changes the value chain. Deployment of charging infrastructures is essential for the adoption of Electric vehicles. This implies that new actors are going to be introduced in the ecosystem, in addition to established operators of gas/fuel stations. New operators of charging infrastructures, public, private and hybrid, are experimenting with new and innovative business models. Furthermore, IT firms, mobile phone companies and electricity companies are also going to be involved in the ecosystem of Electric vehicles. The entrance of new actors in the value chain is predicted to be a game-changing aspect of the deployment of Electric vehicles.

Other technologies like Advanced industrial robotics (AIR) and Industrial internet of things (IIoT) are used in the manufacturing of Electric vehicles. Together, this leads to further automation of the production processes, with electrical vehicles creating a momentum to modernise or replace factories and production lines.

The main purpose of the study is to better understand, and allow stakeholders to anticipate and address the impact of new technologies on production processes and work. As such, the three components of the study are:

1. the level of maturity and the scope of applicability of the technologies, in terms of specific subindustries and geographic areas across Europe;

2. the (potential) qualitative impact on the production process including the impact on value chains, business models, productivity and output/products; and

3. the (potential) qualitative impact on work, in terms of employment (e.g. occupations that are emerging or disappearing), tasks (e.g. changes in physical, social and intellectual tasks), skill types and skill levels, education/training needs, working conditions

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