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Drawing on international and New Zealand research, the report identifies a range of possible determinants, mechanisms and indicators that could inform future gender analysis and policy reforms aimed at eliminating the gender pension gap.

Key findings:

Indicators of influence for the gender pension gap:

  1. Gender pay gap
  2. Career gaps or time out of work
  3. Marital and partnership status
  4. Financial knowledge and capability
  5. Financial confidence
  6. Financial behaviour
  7. Intra-familial finances 


There are a number of possible policies that can be utilised to limit the impact of the structural and social factors that influence the gender pension gap:

  • Maintaining a public pension scheme as a universal basic income is valuable to women
  • Contributing to pension schemes for staff during parental leave periods
  • Paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers
  • Enhancing flexible working arrangements
  • Applying gender-neutral annuity divisors
  • Explore a form of ‘care credit’ system that could co-exist with KiwiSaver





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