While you’re here… help us stay here.

Are you enjoying open access to policy and research published by a broad range of organisations? Please donate today so that we can continue to provide this service.


This report gives evidence of the gaps in the current European Union (EU) export regulation framework for digital surveillance technologies and provides the EU institutions and its member states with actionable recommendations to improve the protections of human rights in the upcoming Recast Dual Use Regulation. Amnesty International investigated the exports of digital surveillance technologies from Europe to China, a country that (mis)uses its criminal law system to restrict human rights. China is also rapidly installing surveillance networks that are used for indiscriminate mass surveillance and use facial and ethnicity recognition software to discriminate against the Uyghur population.

The EU exports regulation framework needs fixing, and it needs it fast. At the time of publishing this report, the European legislature is in the legislative procedure to amend the exports regulation framework (i.e. Recast Dual Use Regulation). This is the window of opportunity that must be seized to establish a robust framework that respects, protects and promotes human rights. Amnesty International published this report to illustrate the gaps and to present six concrete proposals for change in the EU exports regulation framework.

Publication Details
License type:
Access Rights Type: