The purpose of the inquiry was to explore the effectiveness of the Racial and Religious Tolerance Act 2001 (Vic) (RRTA), which is a key component of Victoria’s human rights framework, alongside the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic) (EOA) and the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic) (the Charter).

The report is divided into the following nine chapters:

  • Chapter 1 introduces the inquiry’s ToR and outlines the inquiry process.
  • Chapter 2 provides an overview of relevant international, federal and state and territory mechanisms.
  • Chapter 3 explores how racial and religious vilification manifests in different communities, in addition to the experiences of other groups targeted by hate, in particular women, LGBTIQ+ community and people with a disability.
  • Chapter 4 discusses the drivers and root causes of vilification and highlights some of the areas where it is prevalent. The chapter also considers ways to combat vilification and systemic prejudice.
  • Chapter 5 examines the current civil provisions in the RRTA and the reforms proposed throughout the inquiry to address ongoing issues.
  • Chapter 6 explores how to improve accessibility of Victoria’s anti-vilification laws in order to facilitate more complaints and resolution of disputes, in addition to shifting the burden of enforcement from individuals to the Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission.
  • Chapter 7 examines the current criminal provisions in the RRTA and the reforms proposed throughout the inquiry to address ongoing concerns, in addition to issues relating to prejudice-motivate crime and the display of hateful materials.
  • Chapter 8 provides an overview of the barriers for individuals to report vilification, including limited awareness of the RRTA and availability of culturally appropriate support services. The chapter discusses the role of Victoria Police in building trust with communities to encourage reporting of offences, and the importance of comprehensive data collection to inform future policy and policing.
  • Chapter 9 explores the risks and harms associated with the increased digitisation of everyday life and different examples of how the online environment is being regulated. It also discusses how strengthening Victoria’s anti-vilification laws will contribute to addressing online vilification and the need for greater collaboration across Australian governments to regulate social media platforms and respond to online abuse.
Publication Details


Access Rights Type: