This review of the literature is primarily a search for and synopsis of the research evidence that underpins the school readiness of Indigenous Australian children. This review is in four sections. First, definitions of school readiness are outlined and their applicability to the Indigenous population brought into question. Second, the methods of assessing children’s school readiness are reviewed, highlighting the shortfall in techniques specifically designed and validated for Indigenous Australians and the variable applicability of the techniques currently in use. Third, the risk and protective factors that influence Indigenous school readiness are presented, demonstrating that in comparison to the other subject areas covered in the review, risk and protective factor research has the strongest evidence base. Fourth, interventions designed to improve Indigenous school readiness are scrutinised, revealing that high quality evidence is sparse and effective interventions are few in number.