The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the burden of kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. After summarising kidney disorders and the context of kidney disease among the general Australian population, attention is directed to the factors contributing to kidney disease among Indigenous people. The extent of CKD and ESKD among Indigenous people in Australia is then addressed by outlining the overall incidence and prevalence, and associated hospitalisation and mortality.
The review also outlines the extent of other urologic conditions and disorders of the urinary tract among Indigenous people, including acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN), urinary tract infections (UTIs) and urolithiasis. The factors contributing to kidney health problems, particularly CKD and ESKD, are considered in the context of the management and treatment of these conditions. The review concludes by outlining the current policies and strategies employed to address kidney health in Australia, with particular focus on polices and strategies employed to address the kidney health of Indigenous Australians.