In their article, Elise Klein, Michael Jones and Eddie Cubillo consider Don Weatherburn’s claim that Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander Legal Services (ATSILS) have a limited role in reducing Indigenous incarceration. They argue that Weatherburn understates the role of ATSILS. They make their argument in three parts: first, they assess the Weatherburn thesis as it relates to ATSILS. Second, they examine the weaknesses of Weatherburn’s methodology, which overlooks the complexity of Indigenous over-representation in Australian prisons. Third, they explore five counterfactual scenarios of a world without ATSILS, showing the major role ATSILS have regarding the myriad of cross-cultural and socio-economic issues Indigenous people contend with when coming in contact with the justice system. They argue that ATSILS play an important role in addressing Indigenous over-representation in Australian prisons. Read their full article in the Australian Review of Public Affairs.