Business enterprises, whether they are large or small, contribute to the growth of desert regions in Australia. This report presents case studies of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the desert. The case studies highlight the different business models that exist in desert areas, the barriers and constraints faced by entrepreneurs and the strategies they adopt to sustain and grow their businesses. The report also delves into what motivates people to start a business, and what drives them to continue on despite the many challenges they face. Regardless of the business structure, MSMEs operating in the desert face common challenges. These challenges and barriers revolve around remoteness, distance from suppliers and markets, small local markets and high freight and transport costs, leading to high business transaction costs. However, the case studies showed that numerous businesses continue to sprout in the desert, many manage to grow, and many thrive – even during times of economic crisis such as in the recent global financial crisis.