Abstract: Based on interviews with Australian parents and service providers and examination of parenting resources, this study examined the respective influence of cultural nationalism and cosmopolitanism on parenting in the early years. This analysis found, contrary to research on children's social identities, that ideas of nation were significant to Australian parents and service providers. However, there are significant challenges to articulating and resourcing a vernacular orientation to family life. These include the dominance by multinational enterprises of the marketplace for parenting resources, the generic nature of these resources and the difficulty of defining what an Australian family or parenting style might be. At the same time, some parents identified with a cosmopolitan orientation to socialising their children. Their motivations were various, including future transnational mobility, conferring advantage in a competitive local job market and fostering an appreciation for diverse cultures. This was a strategic and entrepreneurial rather than a philosophical orientation.