Each year in Australia since 1999-00 about 4,700 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 15 years resulted in hospitalisation. Of these, 63% were due to poisoning by pharmaceutical substances and 37% to poisoning by non-pharmaceutical substances. Poisoning, or concern over the possibility of poisoning, is a common reason for admitting young children to hospital in Australia. Most of the episodes are brief, with children being discharged home. This is a condition of toddlers when most babies become mobile, peaking in the second year of life for cases involving non-pharmaceutical substances, and the following year for those involving pharmaceuticals. While the great majority of these cases come to nothing or resolve quickly and completely, a few are more serious: 35 children remained in hospital for more than a week, and five died in hospital. Child-resistant packaging is an important risk reduction technique for this type of injury.