Willem Adema


Early maternal employment and child development in five OECD countries

This report investigates the effects of maternal employment on child development. It compares data from countries with different types of work-family policy - Australia, Canada, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States - using data from national birth cohort studies, including the Longitudinal Study...

How expensive is the welfare state?

This paper presents information on trends and composition of social expenditure across the OECD, and accounts for the effects of the tax system and private social expenditure. Gross public social expenditure on average across OECD increased from 16% of GDP in 1980 to 21% in...

What works best in reducing child poverty: a benefit or work strategy?

This paper assesses the extent to which child poverty is associated with the work status of parents. Whiteford and Adema find that in nearly all OECD countries child poverty rates are significantly higher for jobless families than for families with at least one parent in...