ANZUS treaty



Sliding-door moments: ANZUS and the Blue Pacific

This report examines some key ‘sliding-door’ moments that have shaped the trajectory of ANZUS in the Pacific Island region over seven decades, to reach the current confused state within the alliance regarding its aims in the Pacific Islands.

ANZUS at 70: the past, present and future of the alliance

The ANZUS Treaty was signed on 1 September 1951 in San Francisco. It was the product of energetic Australian lobbying to secure a formal United States commitment to Australian and New Zealand security. This publication aims to show the range of those ties, to understand...

State of the United States: an evolving alliance agenda

With the Biden Administration in Washington committed to both the Indo-Pacific and the value of alliances — and 2021 marking the 70th anniversary of the ANZUS Treaty — this publication advances an agenda for the U.S/Australia alliance at this critical time.
Discussion paper

The Biden Presidency and Australia’s security reset

The swearing-in of Joe Biden as 46th President of the United States will signal a reset in the strategic relationship between Australia and its US partner. In this discussion paper, Allan Behm argues that Australia will need to do its own thinking, reinvesting in both...

Operationalising deterrence in the Indo-Pacific

The United States and Australia need to bolster their contributions to deterrence and defence in an increasingly contested Indo-Pacific. This will require updating and future-proofing the US-Australia alliance so that it keeps up with the pace, scale and intensity of the multidimensional challenges that China...

Taiwan flashpoint: what Australia can do to stop the coming Taiwan crisis

This paper argues that rather than continue the debate about Australia’s position on its ANZUS obligations should the United States invoke the treaty in a Taiwan conflict, Australia should work with other regional powers to advocate for more robust risk avoidance and crisis management mechanisms.

Democracy promotion: ANZUS and the Free and Open Indo-Pacific strategy

This paper argues that democracy promotion ought to be an essential component of the Free and Open Indo-Pacific strategy — a strategy that is being promoted by the United States, Australia, Japan and, increasingly, India, albeit with national differences in approaches and emphasis.

ANZUS and alliance politics in Southeast Asia: revisiting the ‘southern flank’

The southern-flank portion of the U.S regional alliance network—also known as the ‘San Francisco system’—includes formal bilateral defence treaties with Thailand and the Philippines and the ANZUS defence pact. This report outlines an assessment of how the San Francisco system’s southern flank matters in contemporary...
Other text

Kim Beazley on the US alliance and Australia’s defence and international security

Kim Beazley has spent a professional lifetime being deeply immersed in the design and implementation of Australia’s defence and security policy. He steered his side of politics through the global anti-nuclear unrest of the early 1980s to craft an approach to Australia’s alliance with the...

North Korea and the ANZUS Treaty

This Strategic Insight traces the origins of the ANZUS Treaty, examines its substantive content, and considers whether and how it might apply in the event of a conflict between the United States and North Korea.
Audio interview

As support for ANZUS wanes, can China overcome Australians' wariness?

This interview discusses recent survey results regarding Australians' attitudes towards the ANZUS Alliance and our relations with China. Support for the ANZUS alliance has fallen to its lowest point in almost a decade. New research shows that Australians are increasingly looking to China to fill...

The antennas of Pine Gap

Antennas are the most readily available and visible evidence of the existence, character, and size of signals intelligence facilities that operate or monitor space systems. Coupled with data on the timing of developments in US geosynchronous satellite programs, the timing of antenna installation now permits...

Managing operations at Pine Gap

The management of operations at the Pine Gap facility has become increasingly complex as the functions of the station have expanded, the number of agencies involved has grown, and the demands of a wider range of ‘users’ or ‘customers’ for the provision of ‘actionable intelligence’...

The SIGINT satellites of Pine Gap: conception, development and in orbit

Pine Gap’s initial and still principal importance to the United States lies in its role as a ground control and processing station for geosynchronous signals intelligence satellites. Nine geosynchronous SIGINT (signals intelligence) satellites have been operated by Pine Gap over the past 45 years. That...

The higher management of Pine Gap

The higher management of Pine Gap is and has always been an entirely American affair. To understand Pine Gap today, it is necessary to understand the organisations of the US intelligence community and military concerned with the acquisition of technical intelligence, and their politics over...

The corporatisation of Pine Gap

The Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap, located just outside the town of Alice Springs in Central Australia and managed by the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), is one of the largest U.S. technical intelligence collection facilities in the world. The corporate presence at Pine Gap...

The militarisation of Pine Gap: organisations and personnel

The Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap, located just outside the town of Alice Springs in Central Australia and managed by the US National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), is one of the largest US technical intelligence collection facilities in the world. Pine Gap today hosts three distinct...

Expanded communications satellite surveillance and intelligence activities utilising multi-beam antenna systems

The recent expansion of FORNSAT/COMSAT (foreign satellite/communications satellite) interception by the UKUSA or Five Eyes (FVEY) partners has involved the installation over the past eight years of multiple advanced quasi-parabolic multi-beam antennas, known as Torus, each of which can intercept up to 35 satellite communications...
Audio interview

Home base: US military bases in Australia

In 1980 ANU security expert Des Ball published, A Suitable Piece of Real Estate, about American installations in Australia. These military and intelligence bases are the cornerstone of the Australian/US defence relationship. Over 30 years later, there are calls for a renewed debate on the...

Expanding alliance: ANZUS cooperation and Asia–Pacific security

Is an alliance conceived as a bulwark against a resurgence of Japanese militarism and which cut its military and intelligence teeth in the Cold War is still relevant to today’s strategic concerns? Overview The alliance between Australia and the US, underpinned by the formal ANZUS...

Conflict in the East China Sea: would ANZUS apply?

This paper analyses the circumstances under which conflict in the East China Sea could occur and the implications for Australia.
Fact sheet

Fact Check: Does ANZUS commit the US to come to Australia's aid, as Foreign Minister Julie Bishop claims?

Foreign Minister Julie Bishop claims at the heart of the ANZUS treaty is a commitment for signatories to come to one another's aid in the worst of times.

ANZUS 2.0 cybersecurity and Australia–US relations

At the 15 September 2011 AUSMIN talks in San Francisco, Australian and US officials took advantage of the 60th anniversary of the signing of the ANZUS Treaty to announce the alliance would now extend into cyberspace. It was the first time, outside of NATO, that...

The Australia-US alliance: a cost/benefit analysis

The American alliance is an article of faith in Australia because it is said to underpin our security. There have been many reviews and White Papers but perhaps it is time for a hard-headed cost/benefit analysis. Here I consider some of the questions that must...

Lowy Institute Poll 2011: Australia and the world

New questions this year cover attitudes towards the US alliance and the war in Afghanistan, opinions on basing US forces in Australia, WikiLeaks, foreign aid and the intervention in Libya. The Poll also repeated questions asked in previous years, revealing trends in public opinion on...