Grain self-sufficiency capacity in China’s metropolitan areas under rapid urbanization: trends and regional differences from 1990 to 2015
Urbanization brings significant changes to the urban food system. There is growing attention to food self-sufficiency in metropolitan areas for the concern of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in food transportation. In China, grain self-sufficiency in metropolitan areas is also an important issue for grain security...
Cereal stockpiles are likely to prevent short-term shortage and avert a global food crisis
With many major food producing countries experiencing a decline in cereal production in 2018, there are fears that the world could face a looming shortage of key food commodities. That fear is misplaced, however, due to the large volume of food commodities that have been...
Estimating crop yields: a brief guide
In this agricultural note, a simple method to estimate the yield of a range of field crops for use by farmers and agribusiness is outlined.
Temperate pulse viruses: beet western yellows virus (BWYV)
Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) has an extremely wide host range and is distributed worldwide. Hosts include temperate pulses (chickpea, faba bean, lentil, field pea and vetch), pasture legumes (clover, medics and lucerne), canola and many perennial weeds. BWYV is transmitted persistently by a large...
This Agricultural Nnote provides information on the use of preservatives for safer storage of hay in Australia. When deciding which product to use, it is important to understand the differences between each of the products and when each can or cannot be used.
What happens to hay when it heats?
The heating of hay results in losses of dry matter, digestible nutrients and energy as a result of a complex chain of biological activities. Palatability will also decline as dust from mould spores develop. If heating continues, chemical reactions can begin, possibly leading to haystack...
Haystack fires (spontaneous combustion)
Haystack fires have a range of causes such as lightning strikes, sparks from equipment and machinery and deliberately or accidentally started. However, many haystack fires self-ignite for no apparent reason. This is called spontaneous combustion and is the leading cause of haystack fires in Victoria...
Bioethanol in Victoria
This Agricultural Note provides information on bioethanol, drivers and barriers for production, markets, and research and development in Victoria, Australia.
Seed health testing in pulse crops
Many important diseases of pulses can be seed-borne. Pulse growers can minimize losses from these diseases by using high quality seed. Seed testing is required to establish whether seed is infected. Seed health tests are currently available to detect the most important seed-borne pathogens of...
Identification of cereal seedlings
In order to identify different cereal species, close observation of the seedlings at the junction of the leaf-sheath and leaf-blade is required. This Ag Note helps to distinguish the different cereal species.
Stripe rust of wheat
There have been two introductions of wheat stripe rust into Australia. These introductions may have entered Australia on clothing. The first introduction occurred in Victoria in 1979, and stripe rust rapidly spread across eastern Australia. This original rust mutated, and a number of pathotypes (also...
Septoria tritici blotch of wheat
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an important stubble borne foliar disease of wheat in Victoria, Australia. This disease has increased in importance in the high rainfall cropping regions during the last five years, even though it has been well controlled in Victoria for the last...
Scald of barley
Scald is a common foliar disease in Victorian barley crops as the majority of current varieties are susceptible. Scald severity varies greatly from crop to crop depending on variety resistance, paddock history and local climate. Scald is more likely to be a problem when a...
Stem rust of wheat
Stem rust is an occasional, but devastating disease of wheat. Epidemics occur when there is a carry over of stem rust from the previous season, susceptible varieties of wheat are grown, and warm humid conditions in the spring encourage disease development.
Cereal disease guide
Variety selection and robust disease management plans are critical to minimising the impact of diseases in cereal crops. The Victorian Cereal Disease Guide provides the latest information on disease management and the disease resistant ratings for cereal crops.
Effect of frost on cereal grain crops
Loss of wheat production due to frost damage is not common in Victoria. However, while the total loss is rarely great, individual growers can suffer heavy losses in some years. The factors exposing crops to loss are discussed along with tips to minimise the potential...
Canola is a profitable cropping option for many cropping regions of Victoria and it also brings diversity in terms of cropping rotations. Background information is provided for potential growers, agri-industry and students.
Endophyte in perennial grasses: effect on host plants and livestock
Endophytes are fungi that live within healthy plant tissue, relying on it for protection, nutrition and dispersal. Usually they do not cause any disease symptoms but can be detected by examining plant sections with a microscope or by laboratory tests.
Decimal growth scale of cereals
Accurate assessment of growth stage is important because the cereal plant's response to herbicide, growth regulator or fertiliser application depends on its stage of development.
Estimating crop yields and crop losses
Accurate, early estimations of grain yield and crop loss are important skills in grain production and extensive personal experience is essential for estimating yields at early stages of growth.
Wheat is the most important cereal grain in world commerce. The framework for all winter crop production in Victoria, Australia, is based on the principles and practice of successful wheat farming. This Agriculture Note gives an overview of those principles.
Growing faba bean
A brief outline of the key techniques required for the successful production of faba bean relevant to potential new growers is provided. For more detailed advice potential growers should consult local agronomists.