Journal article

Grain self-sufficiency capacity in China’s metropolitan areas under rapid urbanization: trends and regional differences from 1990 to 2015

Urbanization brings significant changes to the urban food system. There is growing attention to food self-sufficiency in metropolitan areas for the concern of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in food transportation. In China, grain self-sufficiency in metropolitan areas is also an important issue for grain security...

Cereal stockpiles are likely to prevent short-term shortage and avert a global food crisis

With many major food producing countries experiencing a decline in cereal production in 2018, there are fears that the world could face a looming shortage of key food commodities. That fear is misplaced, however, due to the large volume of food commodities that have been...
Technical report

Estimating crop yields: a brief guide

In this agricultural note, a simple method to estimate the yield of a range of field crops for use by farmers and agribusiness is outlined.
Technical report

Temperate pulse viruses: beet western yellows virus (BWYV)

Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) has an extremely wide host range and is distributed worldwide. Hosts include temperate pulses (chickpea, faba bean, lentil, field pea and vetch), pasture legumes (clover, medics and lucerne), canola and many perennial weeds. BWYV is transmitted persistently by a large...
Technical report

Hay preservatives

This Agricultural Nnote provides information on the use of preservatives for safer storage of hay in Australia. When deciding which product to use, it is important to understand the differences between each of the products and when each can or cannot be used.
Technical report

What happens to hay when it heats?

The heating of hay results in losses of dry matter, digestible nutrients and energy as a result of a complex chain of biological activities. Palatability will also decline as dust from mould spores develop. If heating continues, chemical reactions can begin, possibly leading to haystack...
Technical report

Haystack fires (spontaneous combustion)

Haystack fires have a range of causes such as lightning strikes, sparks from equipment and machinery and deliberately or accidentally started. However, many haystack fires self-ignite for no apparent reason. This is called spontaneous combustion and is the leading cause of haystack fires in Victoria...
Technical report

Bioethanol in Victoria

This Agricultural Note provides information on bioethanol, drivers and barriers for production, markets, and research and development in Victoria, Australia.
Technical report

Seed health testing in pulse crops

Many important diseases of pulses can be seed-borne. Pulse growers can minimize losses from these diseases by using high quality seed. Seed testing is required to establish whether seed is infected. Seed health tests are currently available to detect the most important seed-borne pathogens of...
Technical report

Identification of cereal seedlings

In order to identify different cereal species, close observation of the seedlings at the junction of the leaf-sheath and leaf-blade is required. This Ag Note helps to distinguish the different cereal species.
Technical report

Stripe rust of wheat

There have been two introductions of wheat stripe rust into Australia. These introductions may have entered Australia on clothing. The first introduction occurred in Victoria in 1979, and stripe rust rapidly spread across eastern Australia. This original rust mutated, and a number of pathotypes (also...
Technical report

Septoria tritici blotch of wheat

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an important stubble borne foliar disease of wheat in Victoria, Australia. This disease has increased in importance in the high rainfall cropping regions during the last five years, even though it has been well controlled in Victoria for the last...
Technical report

Scald of barley

Scald is a common foliar disease in Victorian barley crops as the majority of current varieties are susceptible. Scald severity varies greatly from crop to crop depending on variety resistance, paddock history and local climate. Scald is more likely to be a problem when a...
Technical report

Stem rust of wheat

Stem rust is an occasional, but devastating disease of wheat. Epidemics occur when there is a carry over of stem rust from the previous season, susceptible varieties of wheat are grown, and warm humid conditions in the spring encourage disease development.
Technical report

Cereal disease guide

Variety selection and robust disease management plans are critical to minimising the impact of diseases in cereal crops. The Victorian Cereal Disease Guide provides the latest information on disease management and the disease resistant ratings for cereal crops.
Technical report

Effect of frost on cereal grain crops

Loss of wheat production due to frost damage is not common in Victoria. However, while the total loss is rarely great, individual growers can suffer heavy losses in some years. The factors exposing crops to loss are discussed along with tips to minimise the potential...
Technical report

Growing canola

Canola is a profitable cropping option for many cropping regions of Victoria and it also brings diversity in terms of cropping rotations. Background information is provided for potential growers, agri-industry and students.
Technical report

Endophyte in perennial grasses: effect on host plants and livestock

Endophytes are fungi that live within healthy plant tissue, relying on it for protection, nutrition and dispersal. Usually they do not cause any disease symptoms but can be detected by examining plant sections with a microscope or by laboratory tests.
Technical report

Decimal growth scale of cereals

Accurate assessment of growth stage is important because the cereal plant's response to herbicide, growth regulator or fertiliser application depends on its stage of development.
Technical report

Estimating crop yields and crop losses

Accurate, early estimations of grain yield and crop loss are important skills in grain production and extensive personal experience is essential for estimating yields at early stages of growth.
Technical report

Growing wheat

Wheat is the most important cereal grain in world commerce. The framework for all winter crop production in Victoria, Australia, is based on the principles and practice of successful wheat farming. This Agriculture Note gives an overview of those principles.
Technical report

Growing faba bean

A brief outline of the key techniques required for the successful production of faba bean relevant to potential new growers is provided. For more detailed advice potential growers should consult local agronomists.