Dairy industry

Dairy farming


Performance of Australia's dairy industry and the profitability of Australian dairy farmers since deregulation in 2000

This inquiry was conducted during a period when the Australian dairy industry was contributing to the implementation of a number of key initiatives, including the introduction of the mandatory dairy industry code of conduct from 1 January 2020, and the development of the Australian Dairy...

The dairy sector in New Zealand

This paper looks at the economic significance of the dairy industry, the regulatory environment, competition, competing corporate strategies, competing organisational forms and future challenges.

Milking the planet

In this report, the authors describe how carbon emissions from large dairy corporations are annually increasing and how many governments are not implementing the regulations required to mitigate the problem.

Farmer guide to the Dairy Code of Conduct

The Australian government is supporting the dairy industry by implementing clearer and enforceable rules about the conduct of business relationships between farmers and the first purchasers of milk (generally processors). This guide helps farmers better understand the code and how it will affect their business.
Technical report

Barriers to adoption of win–win mitigation farm practices: evidence from New Zealand pastoral farmers

This paper uses survey data from 167 New Zealand sheep/beef and dairy farmers to explore the non-financial barriers that affect their decision-making when deciding whether or not to adopt or expand particular on-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation practices.

Companies spoke. Did their suppliers listen?

Oxfam's 'Behind the Brands' campaign focused on sustainability policies of the ten biggest food and beverage companies globally. This report examines the performance of seven agribusinesses against the same scorecard.

Dairy inquiry: final report

The dominant picture that has emerged from this inquiry is one of significant imbalances in bargaining power at each level of the dairy supply chain. This begins with the relationships between retailers and dairy processors, and progresses down to the relationship between processors and farmers.

Dairy inquiry: interim report

This ACCC interim report outlines options to bring about changed dairy industry practices, to make it easier for farmers to switch to a processor that offers better terms and conditions, and improve production signals and competition at the farm gate.

Australia's dairy industry: rebuilding trust and a fair market for farmers

Despite being Australia's third largest agricultural industry, many dairy farmers are finding it increasingly difficult to cover costs and continue in the industry. Over the last decade, the farm gate milk price has been relatively stable, while the cost of production has increased significantly.

Dairy trade’s economic contribution to New Zealand

This report provides an overview of the dairy sector’s contribution to the New Zealand economy.

Climate change and agriculture: understanding the biological greenhouse gases

In this report the Commissioner examines the issue of agricultural greenhouse gases – methane and nitrous oxide – which together form about half of New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions. This high proportion of emissions coming from agriculture is a major challenge for New Zealand. The...

Resource reallocation and productivity growth in the Australian dairy industry: implications of deregulation

This paper uses farm-level data to examine resource reallocation in the Australian dairy industry between 1979 and 2013, and assesses the contribution of this process to industry-level productivity growth before and after deregulation reforms were introduced in 2000. We show that deregulation facilitated the reallocation...

Time to get regulation back into Australian dairy?

The Australian government’s intervention in the dairy crisis, by offering concessional loans to struggling farmers, has prompted suggestions that other types of regulation – such as a dairy floor price - might be needed. The dairy industry was deregulated more than a decade ago; perhaps...

Report on the state of competition in the New Zealand dairy industry

On 2 June 2015, the NZ Primary Industries Minister requested a report from the Commission, and provided a Terms of Reference for the report. The final report, published on 1 March 2016, provides the minister with an independent view on the state of competition in...
Conference paper

Changes in soil carbon stocks of New Zealand’s grazed pasture in response to variations in management and environmental factors

Abstract Dairy farming is New Zealand's pre-eminent primary industry. It achieves large export earnings but is also responsible for a large proportion of the country's greenhouse gas emissions. One of those greenhouse gases is CO₂, and in order to lower New Zealand's net greenhouse gas...

The life of the dairy cow: a report on the Australian dairy industry

Voiceless's latest in-depth report, The Life of the Dairy Cow, offers valuable insights into the emotional stress and physical strain experienced by the modern Australian dairy cow. Through rigorous analysis of current scientific knowledge as well as the examination of the relevant legal framework, this...

Relative costs of doing business in Australia: dairy product manufacturing - research report

This report assesses the cost structures of businesses operating in the Australian dairy product manufacturing industry, including costs relative to international competitors. Key points: Australian dairy product manufacturers face some cost pressures (such as energy and labour) relative to their competitors, but also some advantages...
Working paper

Land use in rural New Zealand: spatial land use, land-use change, and model validation

Abstract Land is an important social and economic resource. Knowing the spatial distribution of land use and the expected location of future land-use change is important to inform decision makers. This paper documents and validates the baseline land-use maps and the algorithm for spatial land-use...

Relative costs of doing business in Australia: dairy product manufacturing - interim report

Australian dairy product manufacturers face some cost disadvantages relative to their competitors, but also some relative advantages (including lower raw milk costs), argues this report. Overview The Commission’s preliminary assessment is that Australian dairy product manufacturers face some cost disadvantages relative to their competitors, but...
Discussion paper

Relative costs of doing business in Australia: dairy product manufacturing - issues paper

This paper introduces a study into the costs of doing business in the dairy product manufacturing industry, and invites submissions from the public. Summary The Australian Government has asked the Commission to undertake a study into the costs of doing business in the dairy product...

Milking it for all it's worth: competition and pricing in the Australian dairy industry

The retail market for milk in Australia has become more concentrated and, partly as a consequence, so has the wholesale market. This means that farmers, lacking countervailing market power, are at a competitive disadvantage. The result has been that retail prices for milk have increased...