Task economy


Working paper

Measuring the gig economy: current knowledge and open issues

The rise of the “gig economy” has attracted wide attention from both scholars and the popular media. Much of this attention has been devoted to jobs mediated through various online platforms. While non-traditional work arrangements have been a perennial subject of debate and study, the...

Work on digital labour platforms in Ukraine: issues and policy perspectives

This study reveals the important opportunities that digital work provides for Ukrainian workers, but it also raises important questions on the sustainability of this work and of the future of the social model that it offers.

Dependence and precarity in the platform economy

Since its introduction in the late 2000s, there has been growing interest in sharing economy platforms. To explain outcomes, scholars have taken two main approaches—institutionalism, which focuses on employment classification and precarious labor, and technological control via algorithms. Both predict relatively similar outcomes for workers.

Non-standard employment around the world: understanding challenges, shaping prospects

Non-standard forms of employment (hereinafter “non-standard employment”, or “NSE”) have become a contemporary feature of labour markets around the world. Their overall importance has increased over the past few decades in both industrialized and developing countries, as their use has become more widespread across economic...
Working paper

The rise and nature of alternative work in the United States, 1995-2015

To monitor trends in alternative work arrangements, we conducted a version of the Contingent Worker Survey as part of the RAND American Life Panel in late 2015. The findings point to a significant rise in the incidence of alternative work arrangements in the U.S. economy...

Research in the crowdsourcing age: a case study

Digital age platforms are providing researchers the ability to outsource portions of their work – not just to increasingly intelligent machines, but also to a relatively low-cost online labor force comprised of humans. These so-called “online outsourcing” services help employers connect with a global pool...

Future working: the rise of Europe's independent professionals

By the beginning of 2013, five years since the onset of the recession, there had been a loss of around seven million jobs across the European Union. On average, one in ten people were left without work, with countries such as Spain and Greece facing...

Contingent workforce: size, characteristics, earnings, and benefits

Millions of workers do not have standard work arrangements—permanent jobs with a traditional employer-employee relationship. Rather, they are in temporary, contract, or other forms of non-standard employment arrangements in which they may not receive employer-provided retirement and health benefits, or have safeguards such as job-protected...
Working paper

Labor standards and the reorganization of work: gaps in data and research

A common but understudied argument is that the reorganization of work has contributed to the deterioration of labor standards in the US over the past four decades. Yet an analysis of existing aggregate data does not show a strong, unambiguous increase in key measures of...