The primary objective of this research has been to explore retrospectively the impact of implementation of energy building energy codes (EBC), labels, and incentives in reducing space conditioning energy use in buildings in major regions of the world and especially in selected emerging countries.
The report starts by offering a good understating of energy building code objective, typology and enforcement. The (geographical) scope of the study is presented. After it describes the different instruments available to policy makers for the implementation of the building codes, with a special focus on implementation and evaluation policy; some concrete examples from EU, USA and emerging countries are given to mark the difference or the similarity between them. A list of the main barriers to EBC implementation is given. Then it explains the different actors involved with their possible interaction. Detailed Ex-post evaluations of some cases are given, namely USA, China (base on city initiatives), Germany-kfW, Austria, Singapore, India, Jordan, Chile and Thailand. A description of Enforcement and incentives is presented with a complete and clear energy building codes comparison worldwide. Best practices covering the following emerging country China, India, Singapore, Chile and Thailand are highlighted.
In several countries, energy building codes fall under the jurisdiction of the regional states (examples: China, India). Different EBCs cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as simple residential or multi-residential buildings and commercial or public buildings. In emerging countries the rate of implementation of EBC is very low in simple or social residential buildings.
Implementing an EBC involves a network of institutional, professional and builders (example: Turkey). Even a well-designed mandatory EBC will not save energy if it is not followed (example: Egypt, Jordan). Penalties for non-compliance are an efficient tool for enforcement of EBC but not practicable in most emerging countries.
The clear institutional set-up with clear mandate and adequate means (budget and personal), the level of training provided, and the effectiveness of compliance mechanisms (including control and evaluation) are all important indicators of the level to which the EBC is likely to be followed (examples : China, India, Chile, Thailand).
In most emerging countries, While several policy instruments are being put in place, overall the progress with these to date is very limited largely due to: financial and capacity constraints and the time scales required to implement and give effect to policies (examples : South Africa, Egypt, Lithuania).
Implementing of EBC in rehabilitation is subject to tenant‐owner conflicts (example: Turkey).
Most of buildings owners in emerging countries don't have an adequate knowledge about energy efficiency and how to benefit from the technology in this regard.
Most of emerging countries suffer from lack of implementation instruments and non-enforceable institutional and legal framework.
Although energy building codes are frequently used, their effectiveness varies greatly from country to country (high effectiveness in China, Turkey, Chile and India and very low effectiveness in Egypt and Jordan).
This study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through labelling or certification. Green Rating systems seem to be an efficient tool for implementing EBC. Thailand shows a good experience by making Green Rating Mark mandatory. Also Turkey gives a good example of implementation of Energy Performance Certificate (ECP).
When referring to the energy saving from implementation of EBC, this study uses the analysis of recent publications and data available but this information is partially available or not available in most of emerging countries. EBCs need to be better monitored and followed in all countries.
Ten selected case studies from emerging countries are presented: Chili, China, Egypt, India, Jordan, Lithuania, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey. These examples may be able to show the way of policies which could be used to realize feasible energy saving in new buildings or renovation or refurbishment.
As this research is based on a compilation of existing studies some figures, tables or paragraphs might hence seem extracted from other reports. As we consider that these inputs are important and should be known by readers, we incorporate them mainly into boxes with reference to their sources. For more details regarding these elements the reader can go directly to the source. So hopefully readers and referenced authors will accept these inconveniences.