Brookings Institution


Federal debt policy in an era of low interest rates: a guide to the issues

Economists and others have worried about the long-run outlook for the federal debt for decades, recognising that the ageing of the baby boom generation would lead to budgetary pressures associated with increased spending. Set in the American context, this guide covers many issues that currently...

The challenge of decarbonizing heavy transport

The transportation sector is responsible for about one-quarter of global GHG emissions and emissions are growing, even in the developed world where other emissions are generally flat. The challenge of decarbonising this sector is global, but this paper focuses on policy options in the United...

The Breakout Scale: measuring the impact of influence operations

One of the greatest challenges in the study of disinformation and influence operations (IOs) is measuring their impact. This paper seeks to answer that challenge by proposing “The Breakout Scale,” a comparative model for measuring IOs based on data that are observable, replicable, verifiable and...
Working paper

Lessons from the Trump administration’s policy experiment on China

This working paper argues that the Trump administration’s policy experiment on China has failed to curb Chinese behaviours of concern or elicit Chinese concessions on American priorities. China has grown more repressive at home and more assertive in pursuit of its external ambitions. These outcomes...

Disinformation as a wicked problem: why we need co-regulatory frameworks

Over the past few years, social media platforms, particularly Facebook and Twitter, have received inordinate blame for many of society’s ills, particularly mis- and disinformation. This paper recommends the creation of government fusion cells for online problems, which would centralise expertise and decision-making and serve...