Philip N. Howard

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The IRA, social media and political polarization in the United States, 2012-2018

Russia’s Internet Research Agency (IRA) launched an extended attack on the United States by using computational propaganda to misinform and polarize US voters. This report provides the first major analysis of this attack based on data provided by social media firms to the Senate Select...
Journal article

Algorithms, bots, and political communication in the US 2016 election: the challenge of automated political communication for election law and administration

This article examines the primary ways in which algorithmic political communication—organized by automated scripts on social media—may undermine elections in democracies.

Digital activism and non-violent conflict

Using data from thousands of campaigns around the world, this paper explores the relationship between digital activism and non violent conflict. Executive Summary In order to analyze digital activism, we investigated hundreds of campaigns from around the world and assembled protest event data more comprehensive...
Journal article

Political parties and voter privacy: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and United States in comparative perspective

Political parties are among the most lax, unregulated organizations handling large volumes of personally identifiable data about citizens’ behavior and attitudes. This paper analyzes the privacy practices of political parties in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States to assess the current state of electorate...