Climate change poses direct and indirect risks to health. Direct risks include physical injury because of more frequent events such as bushfire, and increased heat-related death and disease. Indirect risks include more infectious diseases transmitted through vectors such as insects, and mental and physical health difficulties that typically follow social and economic disruption and dislocation such as drought. The diversity of health risks from climate change presents a direct challenge to the health sector – including acute health-care and the public health system. Many health-protecting activities will need to be undertaken by other sectors of government and industry, as well as by individuals and communities. This Plan will guide researchers generating the information Australia needs to develop an effective and equitable portfolio of adaptive strategies.