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This report reviews the open-source information available on the counter-space capabilities that can threaten U.S. space systems and which countries are developing such systems. The report is intended to raise awareness and understanding of the threats, debunk myths and misinformation, and highlight areas in which senior leaders and policymakers should focus their attention.

This report focuses on five specific countries that are either avidly pursuing counter-space capabilities or that present the greatest risk to the United States' National Security: China, Russia, Iran, North Korea, and India. A sixth section analyses the counter-space capabilities of select other countries, including some allies and partners of the United States, and some non-state actors.

This report is not a comprehensive assessment of all known threats to U.S. space systems because much of the information on what other countries are doing to advance their counter-space systems is not publicly available. Instead, it serves as an unclassified assessment that aggregates and highlights open-source information on counter-space capabilities for policymakers and the general public.

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