The number of deaths among children under the age of 5 has decreased by half since 1990. In 2018, an estimated 802,000 children under-five died of pneumonia. Of those, 153,000 (19 per cent) died within their first month of life. This report presents the causes of pneumonia, the ways to prevent and treat it, and the resources needed to end pneumonia-related deaths. With only a decade left to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 3 targets, the report is a stark reminder for stakeholders that resources must be directed to where the impact will be the greatest in reducing child mortality.