The construction industry is often ranked top in producing the largest amount of waste during a project, be it the waste of material resources or the waste of manpower. This has elevated the need for an improved and more structured management technique. This study will look into the principles and practices of lean management pertinent to highway construction projects to analyze whether lean management practices can improve the management efficiency for complex projects. This study adopted a quantitative approach, and a linear regression model has been used to investigate correlations between the lean test factors and the efficiency-dependent variables. It was found that lean management tools that are used repeatedly and the ones that require a high level of detailing are positively associated with efficiency improvement in highway construction projects. In particular, LPS, JIT, and VM were found to be more commonly used in highway construction projects. The research results will aid in the initial decision-making process of the project managers, as they will be able to map different lean tools with their benefits and limitations and then select the one that best suits the project needs and deliverables. Future studies can adopt the interpretivism paradigm to explore new theories and concepts related to highway construction management.