Chain of wastes: the moderating role of making-do
The concept of chain of wastes has been used to describe the systemic impacts of some types of wastes. In turn, making-do has been proposed as a leading waste that triggers other wastes that propagate across a chain of wastes. However, there is scarce empirical basis for that proposition, and current models of chain of wastes are not based on a functional perspective, which hinders the traceability of wastes to production activities. This study presents an application of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) for the modelling of a chain of wastes. Based on FRAM, a chain of wastes was modelled for the gutter assembly process of an airport terminal building. Data collection involved the analysis of documents and an interview with the production manager of the construction project. Results indicated that making-do played a moderating role in the chain of wastes. While it compensated for wastes arising from the initial stages of the chain of wastes (i.e. it prevented a contractual fine from being applied) it created new wastes downstream, with implications for the building’s use. The provision of slack resources is presented as an alternative for the prevention and mitigation of the impacts of making-do.