The Government’s recent efforts to improve household energy efficiency have consisted of supplier obligations—such as the Energy Company Obligation (ECO)—and the marketled ‘pay-as-you-save’ Green Deal. These policies have proved inadequate. ECO has delivered many improvements but at much lower rates than previous supplier obligation schemes. The Green Deal did not increase demand for energy efficiency significantly and fell far short of original ambitions for the scheme. Beyond well-documented issues around complexity and cost, the Green Deal failed to address the hassle factor that can prevent customers signing up.