Economic development will lead to higher demand for various end-use goods and services in India. Energy-efficient technologies provide a way forward to achieve economic growth at relatively lower costs due to associated multiple benefits such as resource conservation, lower energy consumption, higher productivity and lower emissions intensity per unit of output.
The report undertakes the following analysis to identify High Impact Opportunities (HIOs):
- An assessment of the potential for improvements in energy efficiency and identifying different technological options to support the Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) target in selected sub-sectors in India;
- Identification of policies and measures to achieve the SEforALL energy efficiency target in the sub-sectors.
Sectoral analysis of energy efficiency is conducted using AIM/End-Use, a bottom-up energy system model, by assessing the energy saving potential of various technology options. These technology options include a combination of existing technologies, best available technologies and more advanced technologies likely to exist in the future. The total impact of each individual option is estimated using the cost of conserved energy and the total energy saving potential at the national level.
The sectoral analysis from the model is used to guide the identification of High Impact Opportunities (HIOs). The process also included stakeholder consultation and expert opinions on the potential for scaling up a technology option based on its technological maturity level and its contribution to SEforALL’s objectives of energy access, improving energy efficiency and encouraging renewable forms of energy.
This report examines HIOs in the short term (till 2020), medium term (2020 to 2030) and long-term (2030 to 2050) perspectives. HIOs identified before 2020 include light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, energy-efficient (EE) pump-sets for agriculture; a ‘perform, achieve and trade’ (PAT) scheme for eight energy-intensive sectors, and metro rail. LED lighting is expected to penetrate deeply by 2020 and will not remain an HIO beyond that date. Even if technological changes occur in LED lighting after 2020, they will not result in any appreciable energy savings at the national level; the break-even point for incremental improvements to energy-efficient technologies would take longer. From 2020-2030, our analyses indicate that a perform, achieve and trade (PAT) scheme would remain a major HIO along with energy-efficient pump sets. Emerging HIOs include energy-efficient fans, solar power, smart grids, super-critical pulverized coal technology, and measures to reduce T&D losses. PAT will continue to remain an HIO even after 2030 if the ‘Make in India’ programme continues. Energy-intensive industries will move gradually towards a narrower specific energy consumption band, while the residential sector will shift towards cleaner fuels like electricity and solar. Smart grids will play a crucial role in monitoring, thereby conserving energy in urban areas. Metro will remain an important HIO in the transport sector, increasing the share of public transport as one of the most convenient modes of travel.