Australia’s membership of and relations with the League of Nations had a significant impact on the Australian view of the world, not least because they prepared the way for the enthusiastic embrace of the United Nations in 1945. Australians were long accustomed to adopting a transnational perspective because of their place within the Empire-Commonwealth. The League, particularly through the popular propagation of the obligations membership generated, introduced the idea of a potentially global and specifically non-imperial transnationalism. Political leaders, officials and citizens were all compelled, to some degree, to come to terms with the role of international regimes, international scrutiny and international norms in global affairs. In short, Australian membership of the League encouraged and sometimes required thinking beyond the Empire-Commonwealth. It thus constituted a major step to full international citizenship.