This study reports on research into the significant social and economic costs of the 2003 bushfires across the Gippsland and North East Regions for both the short and medium terms. It reveals that the bushfires are expected to have considerable direct and indirect effects on these regions for the long term (i.e. the next two to five years). The loss of income and production in the Shires of Alpine, East Gippsland, Indigo and Towong from the time of the fires to May 2003 is estimated conservatively to exceed $120 million. The monograph provides an ethnographically rich assessment of the social and economic impacts of the fires and presents data for the various shires and industries. The study concludes by offering recommendations on how to address the issues identified by the research team so as to improve bushfire preparedness and emergency response management in ways which bring all stakeholders into the process of planning and implementation.