The agricultural industries of Australia have been a cornerstone of the nation's economy. Their economic contribution comes largely from traditional industries such as wheat, sheep, sugar and beef. However, new agricultural industries also have the potential to make an important economic contribution to the prosperity of the sector, especially given the current rapid changes in the trading, technological, consumer and natural resource environments of the sector. Investing in new rural industries is seen as important in maintaining the overall competitiveness of Australian agriculture. Supply chain management has been identified as a competitive strategy that is linked to success in agribusiness. Linking the need to develop new rural industries with the potential for supply chain management to improve competitiveness, this research examines how the presence or absence of supply chain based strategies has affected the development of fifteen supply chains in five new rural industries. The industries studied were kangaroo, emu, Australian native flowers, Asian vegetables and olives.