This report is based on independent research conducted for an NZ Aid Programme-funded project Sharing the Riches of Tourism: Exploring How Tourism Can Contribute More Effectively to Poverty Alleviation in the Pacific. Research in a variety of developing country contexts has found that the conventional focus on increasing tourist arrivals, encouraging foreign investment in the sector, and seeking to improve foreign exchange earnings has often failed to significantly enhance the benefits of tourism for the poor. A new approach to tourism development, PPT (pro-poor tourism), suggests that greater benefits from tourism can be spread to the poor by encouraging a wide range of players (community, private sector, civil society, government) working at a range of scales (local, national, regional) to spread the benefits of tourism more widely and unlock livelihood opportunities for the poor within tourism and connected sectors (Mitchell and Ashley, 2010). This can lead to improvements, for example, in policy, in labour practices of hotels and resorts, and better linkages with related sectors such as agriculture and fisheries. There has been a startling absence of research on PPT in the Pacific to date thus this research has the following aim: to examine whether tourism is delivering widespread development benefits to ni-Vanuatu people at different scales of tourism development, and under different land tenure arrangements. With 98% of land under communal tenure, much of it prime coastal land, it was considered particularly important that the influence of land tenure was considered.