Surveying online practices of American youth and their civic and political engagement, this working paper finds that most youth are not consistently exposed to either echo chambers or divergent perspectives.

Some see the Internet as a means of exposure to divergent perspectives, while others believe that it is likely to foster echo chambers. This paper agrees that it is important to attend to these possibilities, but finds that this discussion is often framed inappropriately.

Rather, it finds that most youth are exposed to views that align with and diverge from their own, or they are exposed to neither. The paper also finds that political interest, particular forms of online participation, and digital media literacy education can promote greater exposure to these diverse perspectives.

Authored by Joseph Kahne, Ellen Middaugh, Nam-Jin Lee and Jessica Timpany Feezell.

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